Friday, October 22, 2010

Tyaga Raju

 Kakarla Tyagabrahmam, colloquially known as Tyāgarāja   ( May 4, 1767 - January 6, 1847) and Tyagayya was one of the greatest composers of   classical carnataka music He, along with his contemporaries , forms the Trinity of carnatac music. He was a prolific composer and highly influential in the development of the South Indian classical music tradition. Tyagaraja composed thousands of devotional compositions, most of them in praise of Lord Rama. His compositions remain very popular even today. Of special mention are five of his compositions called thePancharatna krithis(English: 'five gems'), which are often sung in programs in his honour.
Tyagaraja was born in 1767 in Tiruvaur, a small town in the Thanjavur district of Old Madras State, He hails from Telugu Brahmin  family Kakarla Ramabrahmam and Sitamma were parents of Tyaga Raju He was named Tyagaraja, after Lord Tyagaraja, the presiding deity of the temple at tiruvarur. Tyagaraja was born at his maternal grandfather Giriraja Kavi's house he  was a poet-composer in the court of the king of Tanjavur.


Personal life and background

Tyagaraja was married at a young age to Parvatamma, who died shortly afterwards. He then married Kamalamba and they had a daughter named Sitalakshmi. Tyagaraja died on January 6, 1847.


Musical career


A few years later, 
Sonti Venkataramanayya invited Tyagaraja to perform at his house inThanjavur.. On that occasion, Tyagaraja sang Endaro Mahanubhavulu.
Tyagaraja began his musical training under 
Sonti Venkataramanayya, a noted music scholar, at an early age. He regarded music as a way to experience God's love. His objective while practising music was purely devotional, as opposed to focusing on the technicalities of classical music. He also showed a flair for composing music, and, in his teens, composed his first song Namo Namo Raghavayya in the Desika Todiragam, and inscribed it on the walls of the house.
  the fifth of the Pancharatna Kirthanalu. Pleased with Tyagaraja's composition, Sonti Venkataramanayya informed the King of Thanajavur about Tyagaraja's genius. The king sent an invitation, along with many rich gifts, inviting Tyagaraja to attend the royal court. Tyagaraja, however was not inclined towards a career at the court, and rejected the invitation outright, composing another gem of a kriti, Nidhi Chala Sukhama (English: "Does wealth bring happiness?") on this occasion. Angered at Tyagaraja's rejection of the royal offer, his brother threw the statues of Rama, Tyagaraja used in his prayers into the nearby Kaverii river. Tyagaraja, unable to bear the separation with his Lord, went on pilgrimages to all the major temples in South India and composed many songs in praise of the deities of those temples.
In addition to nearly 600 compositions (kritis), Tyagaraja composed two musical plays in Telugu, the Prahalada Bhakti Vijayam and theNauka CharitamPrahlada Bhakti Vijayam is in five acts with 45 Kritis set in 28 ragas and 138 verses, in different metres in Telugu. Nauka Charitam is a shorter play in one act with 21 kritis set in 13 ragas and 43 verses. The latter is the most popular of Tyagaraja's operas, and is a creation of the composer's own imagination and has no basis in the Bhagavata Purana.
Often overlooked is the fact that Tyagaraja's works are some of the best and most beautiful literary expressions in Telugu language. Valmiki composed the Ramayana, the story of Rama, with 24,000 verses and incidentally Tyagaraja also composed 24,000 kritis in praise of the lord.
K.V.Ramachandran, a well-known 20th-century Indian music critic, wrote: "Thyagaraja is an indefatigable interpreter of the past...but if with one eye he looks backward, with the other he looks forward as well. Like Prajapati, he creates his own media and adores his Rama not alone with jewel-words newly fashioned, but also with jewel-[like]-music newly created. It is this facet of Thyagaraja that distinguishes him from his illustrious contemporaries." In other words, while Tyagaraja's contemporaries were primarily concerned with bringing to audiences the music of the past, Tyagaraja did the same, whilst pioneering new musical concepts at the same time.


Remembrance

Tyagaraja Aradhana, the commemorative music festival is held every year atThiruvaiyaru in the months of January to February in Tyagaraja's honour. This is a week-long festival of music where various Carnatic musicians from all over the world converge at his resting place. On the Pushya Bahula Panchami, thousands of people and hundreds of Carnatic musicians sing the five Pancharatna Kritis in unison, with the accompaniment of a large bank of accompanists on violinsflutesnagasvaramsmridangams and ghatams.


Popular culture

Films on Tyagaraja (Biographical)

As the most famous composer of Telugu kritis or (kirtanas), Tyagaraja who is fondly remembered as Tyagayya, has caught the imagination of various film makers in the Telugu film industry. Apart from references to his works, using the kirtanas as songs; two films were made on his life. The legendary Chittor V.Nagaiah, made a biographical epic on Tyagaraja titled "Tyagayya" in 1946 which is still treated as a masterpiece of Telugu cinema. Nagayya's rendition of "Endaro Mahanubhavulu" and its picturisation is treated as a matchless classic even today. Later, Bapu - Ramana made Tyagayya in 1981 with J.V.Somayajulu in the lead role. Another attempt is being made by singeetam Srinivasa Rao to picturise the life of Tyagaraja...

[edit]Tyagaraja's compositions

KritiRaga
1DudukugalagowlaPancharatna Kirthana
2SadhinchaneArabiPancharatna Kirthana
3Kana Kana RuchiravarAliPancharatna Kirthana
4Endaro mahAnu bhAvulusriPancharatna Kirthana
5JagadanandakarakaNattaiPancharatna Kirthana
6SogasugA Mridangasri ranjani
7EnAti nOmu palamOBhairavi
8SAmaja Vara GamanAhindoLam
9NagumomuAbheri
10Telisi ramapUranachandrikA
11ManasA YeturlOmalaya mArutham
12Raga Sudha RasaAndOlika
13Vandhanamu raghu nandanAsahAna
14Bantu Reethi KoluHamsanAdam
15Teliya LEru RAmAdhenuka
16Sompaina ManasuthoAhiri
17Baagyenayyachandrajyoti
18Mari Mari NinnekAmboji
19Sri Rama PAdamAamruthavAhini
20MOkshamu GaladhasAramati
21ShObillu SapthaswarajaganmOhini
22EthAvunarAkalyANi
23Amba NinnuArabi
24Sundari NinnuArabi
25NaamoralanuArabi
26JuthamurareArabi
27Nadasudha rasaArabi
28O rajeevakshaArabi
29AdukuvaramulaArabi
30Ipudaina nannuArabi
31Ninne nera namminanuArabi
32O rama ramaArabi
33RAma PAhi MEghakApi
34Nagumomu Galavanimadhyamavati
35Nada Tanumanishamchitharanjani
36Dasaratha NandanaasAveri
37HecharikagA RArAyadukula kAmboji
38Ra Rama Inti DakaasAvEri
39Tulasi DaLamayAmAlava goula
40SogasujUda TharamakannaDagowLa
41SEthamma MAyammavasanthA
42PAhimAm HarE MahAnusowrAshtram
43RAnidhi RAdhumaNirangu
44Odanu JaripEsArangA
45Niravathi Sukadharavi chandrika
46paralOka bhayamumandAri
47dayaseyavayyayamunA kalyAni
48nArAyana hariyamunA kalyAni
49rAma rAmayamunA kalyAni
50vidhichakradula kuyamunA kalyAni
51haridAsulu vEduluyamunA kalyAni
52abhimAnamu lEdhEmiAndhAli
53kAla haraNa mElarA harEsudha sAveri
54raghu nAyakAhamsadwani
55abhishta varadAhamsadwani
56sri raghukulahamsadwani
57adamOdi galachArukEsi
58yentha vEdukosaraswathi manohari
59lIla gAnu jUcEdundhubiOnly kriti in this raga
60nanu kanna thallisindhu kannada
61ninnE bhajananAttai
62rAjuvEdaletodi
63ArAgimpavEtodi
64evari mAta vinnAvokambhoji
65Sara sama danaKapi Narayani
66Maa JanakiKhamboji
67Nija MarmamulanuUmabharanam
68Cakkani RajaKhara Harapriya
69Narada Gana LolaAtana
70Evaru Vunnaru BrovavaMalavasri
71Seethapathe Na ManasunaKhamas
72yOchana kamala lOchanadurbAr
73parAsakti manusAveri
74Manasaa Sri Rama Chandruniishamanohari
75Emidova BalkumasArangi
76Kaluguna Pada Neeraja SevapUraNalalithA
77anurAgamulEsaraswathi(64)
78nidhi chAlakalyANi(65)
79gandhamu puyyarugApunnAgavarALi
80vara lIla gAna lOlAshankaraBharaNam(29)
81raminchuvAr evarurAsupOshini(28)
82sArasa nEtrashankarAbharaNam(29)
83ManavyalakincharathatenalinAkAnthi
84KshIrasagara sayanAdEvagAndhari
85kolivaiunnAdEdEvagAndhari
86vinaradana manavidEvagAndhari
87karuna samudradEvagAndhari
88sItAvara sangItadEvagAndhari
89maravakurAdEvagAndhari
90namoralakimpadEvagAndhari
91eavaru manakidEvagAndhari
92palaya sri raghuvaradEvagAndhari
93sri thulasammadEvagAndhari
94tanaloni dayaninchidEvagAndhari
95marugElarA O rAghavAjayantashreedEshaadi tALam
96Dwaitamu sukamarIthigowlai
97evariccirirA sharacApamumadhyamavati
98vara lEla gANa lOlAshankarAbharaNam
99DhyAnamE varamainadhanyAsi
100sangeetha gnAnamudhanyAsi
101aparadamula nOrvarasALi
102ganamurtheganamurthi
103ksheerasagara sayanadEvagAndhAri
104shri thulasammAdEvagAndhAri


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